Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Postwar Soviet Minelaying Submarines

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648

(Google Translation) The priority in the creation of underwater mine-layers belongs to Russia. The first ship of this assignment was the projected MP Naletova and built submarine "Crab" in 1912, which could take on board up to 60 anchor mines and 4 torpedoes. In the future, the experience of two world wars has confirmed the high efficiency of this class of submarines in combat operations at sea. The most successful of the prewar Soviet submarines projects (SPs) capable of carrying weapons of mine, were the submarine type "A". However small their number, as well as a relatively small ammunition min (on submarines XIII and XIII-bis series 18 pcs., Boating II and XI series 20) led to the fact that even during the war, work began to expand the use of sea mines with submarines of available projects. it must be said that there were two directions in this case. The first involves the use of existing designs boat mines, production of which was carried out by means of special tubes or mined from mines mine-ballast tanks. The second required the creation of new types of mines, which can be set, using standard torpedo boat (TA). And if, having priority in this field, our country has developed a first direction, then Germany, started their construction based on "Russian" type, in the future concentrate on building boat minutes, exposed from the torpedo tubes, what is ahead of all the other navies.

We also respectively during the Second World War on the middle submarine u-101 and M-171 low in addition to torpedoes established mine-ballast tanks. The first sample of mines boat (PLB-3), adapted for the production of 53-cm torpedo, it was also adopted in time of war, in 1943. And while a year later the fleet was another and more effective mine AMD-1000, which, incidentally, could be exposed not only to the boats, surface ships and boats, but also aircraft carriers until the end of the war, none of our submarines have not been retrofit for their use. At the same time the Naval Staff in its proposals for prospective naval construction in the postwar period have pointed out the expediency in the Navy submarine minelayer displacement of about 1,200 tons from 126 mines, cruising range of up to 25,000 miles and 60 days of autonomy. But this idea came back only a decade later, when we will have more submarines etc. 611. September 20, 1956 Chief of the Navy approved the tactical and technical requirements on the creation of a large underwater mine layer, able to take on board new 80-100 minutes boat type PMT -6 and put them in a submerged position in the travel speeds from 3 to 10 kt mine banks for 10-15 minutes each. In addition, TTP required to provide for the possibility of retrofitting a boat forces naval bases for special transport tasks, as well as provide for its ability in any use case to transport 160 tons of aviation fuel (gasoline or kerosene), while taking it into overdrive in the fuel and ballast . tank Work on the creation of such a boat, which received cipher - approx. 632, was assigned to CDB-18.Chief designer of the project appointed JE Evgrafova, formerly the chief designer of submarines of Project 613 and 640. First, in accordance with the TTZ started preliminary study of the two main ways the content of minutes on the ship: "dry" - with keeping them on shelves inside the pressure hull and the "wet", with a maintenance-free storage min, water-filled mine tunnels. Based on the results planned to select a final version and on its basis to develop a preliminary design. However, the clear benefits of either option have been identified, and therefore decided to develop a full draft projects with regard to both methods. But as CDB-18 experienced a huge load, working on a project of a new large torpedo submarine pr. 641, running to replace pr. 611, also began designing the first missile nuclear submarines, schematic design mine layer transferred to CDB-16, which had the experience of creating missile PL pr. B-611 and AB-611.There also from CDB-18 passed all developed through a mine suppressors documentation, which had the willingness more than 30%, as well as transferred YE Evgrafova and YE Kitsina.

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648
In future work the first option, laid, by the way, based on technical projects involving "dry" storage of mines in four mine tunnels (8 pcs. Each) and recharge their spare mines (56 pcs.), Placed on the shelves in the compartment lasting housing. Thus ammunition boat reached 88 min. The second option calculated under the "wet" storage of 80 minutes in six mine tubes (15 pcs. Each) without the possibility of their maintenance in the sea. In both cases, durable submarine hull was divided into 7 sections, and the most significant structural differences, depending the variant had a fifth compartments. Thus, in a first embodiment provides for "vosmerochnaya" shape of its hull, the top of which were placed the breech and drives mined pipes helm mine resetting the device, as well as shelves with spare mine. At the bottom, separated from the upper gas-tight brace platform housed equipment and machinery vehicle electric system. In the second embodiment, the housing compartment was carried out in the traditional shape of a cylinder. The design and layout of the mine tubes in both cases had fundamental differences. Thus, in the first embodiment, there were two on board, they are departing from the rugged, going from the end bulkheads 5th compartment to aft submarine dissolving an angle of about 20 °, and located closer to the center plane, had a decrease in feed about 1 °, providing the output of the mine pipe on the transom the aft end of the ship at the same height relative to its main plane. In the second embodiment, the mine tubes (three per side) were drawn from an end bulkhead of the 1st compartment also to the aft end of the ship. It should be noted that in parallel studied and several so-called non-core variants. In particular, the combination was worked ( "dry" + "wet") way of storing min. . If their total number of 110 units, 28 minutes were taken into 2 "dry" mine pipe, 28 minutes - on the shelves at the bottom of the 2nd compartment, 52 mines - four "wet" mine-pipe and 2 mines - in the outer cubicle that served to load mines in mined pipe. In this embodiment, TTZ-layer satisfy the requirements of the largest underwater speed maximum speed (up to 17 kt) and exceeded the task of stockpiles. He called for the division of the pressure hull of the submarine into six compartments. In this mine compartment instead became 5th 2nd. Everything, except for two basic, but with less detail, we developed four additional variants of the vehicle design, which was used as a "dry" and "wet" method of storing min. However, after considering conceptual design outcomes chief designer and guidance The Bureau recommended to continue to further the design of the ship only on the basis of the first embodiment. It shall be possible to laying mines in the whole range of immersion depth of the boat -. From the periscope up to 250 m of the rear cover of each pipe were mine compartment and equipped kremalernymi shutters, front - external - had special brackets with rollers, is a continuation of the guide in the pipe, which provide unimpeded gathering min. Opening and closing the covers provided by hydraulic actuators, but there were redundant and manual actuators. Mines in the pipes were completely prepared for setting the state, and therefore, inspection and maintenance at sea is not needed. Keep the same without fuses on the shelves mines were available for inspection and maintenance.

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648
Setting minutes after the preparatory operations (filling the annulus pressure equalization, the opening of the front cover and removing the fixing stoppers minutes "in its stowed") should be carried out automatically. Recharge mine pipes could be carried out on the move in all positions of the submarine when the trim up to 5 °, and construction of mines and resets the device prevent the possibility of a spontaneous movement of minutes during charging and use. In accordance with the TTZ in the conceptual design has been carried out and study the possibility of landing transportation . It showed that without increasing the size and tonnage of the ship, in the absence of mines in a mine compartment, 100 people can be accommodated. A number of elements cover equipment needed to carry out a removable to replace the racks for storing mines, equipped with beds and bathroom, extra fans and air filters, galley equipment, provide means for waste disposal, etc. However, the possibility of such work shops HMB forces, even in the presence of a removable equipment looked problematic. In September 1957, draft project was submitted for consideration, and in February 1958 it approved the joint decision of the MOSFET and the Navy. Moreover, along with the positive assessment of the project, it made ​​a number of comments and suggestions, which were to be taken into account in the technical design. Work progressed quickly, and in August of the same year TEHPROEKT been submitted for approval. . It tactical and technical elements of the shipbuilding and large underwater mine layer, etc. 632 in comparison with the sketch - have changed little: only normal displacement of 3000 tons increased to 3,200 tons - the maximum length - from 81.7 m to 85.0 m, draft - from 6.8 m to 6.95. In addition, the adjustment of electricity costs and propulsion qualities of propulsion, as well as characteristics of the shell, from 700 to 800 miles has increased the estimated cruising range of economic progress in a submerged position. It should be noted that in October 1958, in coordination with the Navy Bureau initiated the development of reduced predeskizny project such as mine layer, but involves the use of small-sized nuclear power plant such as "0-153". This project was given the code 632M. However, when in December 1958 the Resolution of the CC CPSU and the USSR defined the shipbuilding program for seven years, boats etc. 632 was not there, and its technical project was not approved. The resolution does not say anything about 632M project.

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648

Almost in parallel with the above work in the same CDB-16 project was created a large transport submarines, the main purpose of which was to become a supply shock submarines operating in the ocean and sea lanes the enemy torpedo and rocket ammunition, diesel fuel, food and regeneration means. Those. before the boat were set tasks similar tasks of the German transport submarine of World War II, known as "cash cows". But other than that, TTZ of 1957 was demanded to provide for the possibility of transporting her aviation fuel, and the conversion of its naval base forces in the place-based transport instead of ammunition assault unit with the standard small arms or reception (on the way back) injured with accompanying medical staff. Chief Designer pr. 648 (a cipher received this submarine) was appointed State Prize winner, former chief designer of artillery cruisers etc. 68K, 66 and 81 N. Kiselyov. Since work on these ships have been stopped, the head of the CDB-16 N. Isanin who knew creativity Kiselyov, his erudition and ability to organize work of a large team, invited him to lead the project. Deputy chief designer became SM Bavilin, and later, after the close of work on the pr. 632, second deputy was appointed Yuri Kitsin. Draft project was developed in five variants. The main vosmiotsechny became "option number 2". "Option number 3" was different from the "second" by adding one more, the 9th compartment, allowing the transfer of the equipment to the central post. "First", "fourth" and "fifth" options implemented at a reduced level in order to find the best layout solutions for reducing the displacement, increasing the speed and cruising range. In March 1958, preliminary design was presented for review and approval, and, in conclusion expressed a proposal for the implementation of experimental work in order to develop in the nature of all problematic issues emerged in the course of designing. Consideration of the preliminary design lasted three months, and 10 July 1958, he was approved.Simultaneously, the Navy Commander and approved the creation of a new TTZ on boats, etc.. 648, in which, in connection with the cessation of work on the pr. 632, on the ship further pinned and functions of the underwater mine layer.

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648
Under the new TTP, the appointment of a large transport submarine - mine layer, etc. was 648 submarine supply operating in oceanic and sea communications of the enemy, cruise missiles, torpedoes, fuel and lubricants, and livelihoods; supply of seaplanes in the sea aviation gasoline; transportation of personnel and goods to various distant points unequipped coast, as well as the formulation of minefields on the communications of the enemy. Tactical and technical requirements to re-determine the composition of the transported cargo, ammunition mines, torpedoes, and established new values ​​shipbuilding and tactical and technical elements of the ship. This is required to perform 17 design studies to determine the possibility of providing various functions, use the ship as part of the approved preliminary design and 4 initiative study in order to find the most appropriate structural solutions for their implementation. Given this broad purpose of the ship, how to implement these functions were developed in three variants. However, designers immediately met with technical problems, which in the underwater shipbuilding, they had to decide for the first time, including such as the creation of devices for handling in open sea with a submarine to the other missiles, torpedoes and other goods, as well as devices and systems diesel fuel storage and transmission on submarines, including their underwater towing process, transport and transfer of flammable aviation fuel etc. hydroaviation It was clear that to solve these problems can not only paper, ask for the full-scale experiments. Because Office presented a list of the main work which includes the manufacture of special booths and equipping ships for the experienced full-scale mining in the sea. In endorsing the proposal by the Bureau, the Navy Command in November 1958 signed a decision to carry out the necessary works and the allocation for experimentation two submarines etc. 611 and 613, and one destroyer pr. 30 bis. Given the importance and scope of the forthcoming development work in special chief designer CDB has been appointed for this purpose. He became MP Rempel. During the development of technical pr. 648, under her leadership have been created and transferred to Severodvinsk plant number 402 related drawings. In the early 1960s, both the submarine and destroyer were retrofitted, and soon began a full-scale experiments in the sea. At the same time the plant manufactured and designed for submarine pr. 632, and corrected for the project stand 648 mine-reset the device. The technical project of the 648 was presented in Moscow in March 1959 and 24 August of the same year by a joint decision of the Navy and the MOS approved. And the deadline for production of working drawings was mounted on 1960, and the decision of the government, which main TTE ship were approved, specify the duration of its construction, as well as enterprises, suppliers and delivery times of all the necessary peripheral equipment.

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648

In early 1961, the plant in Severodvinsk was equipped with plasma and started production of hull sections of the submarine. But construction went hard. In addition, the construction of a single and highly sophisticated ship was economically disadvantageous plant-builder. It was much more profitable to build large-scale orders, but because the director of the plant strongly sought to transfer the construction of the transport-mine layer to another company, or even the closure of the project. Supporters of this position were found on the uppermost manufacturing and naval leadership, the more that the Navy had already initiated the development of a similar diversion of the submarine, but now equipped with a nuclear power plant. By the end of 1960 from the full range of development activities is only one topic has been fully implemented - designed and tested device for transferring diesel fuel from one submarine to the other, including at their joint dive and underwater towing, and its completion was achieved only thanks assertiveness, high professional qualities of the head of the BN topics Meisel. And because 21 June 1961 Resolution of the CC CPSU and the USSR work on pr. 648 were terminated. It should be noted that, as in the case of submarine pr. 632, the management of CDB-16, knowing the limitations of the possibility of diesel submarines, solve transport problems in remote areas, in agreement with the SCS and the Navy in the first half of 1959, organized the implementation of the new predeskizny forth. 648M, provides replacement with minimal rework three (of the planned on pr 648 four) groups of powerful expensive silver-zinc battery, and two diesel engines in two small-sized nuclear power such as "0-153" for 6000 liters.from. each. Their placement allows for maintaining displacement and submarines sizes to get a qualitatively different ship -. With underwater autonomy is not 600, and 1900 hours, with an increased long-term underwater speed and cruising range submerged about 20 000 miles materials of these elaborations were presented in the SCS and the GAM Navy, but further development is not received.Navy specialists have worked on the project TTZ improved transport nuclear submarine - mine layer with powerful nuclear power plant and future electronic equipment -. Boat, etc. 664. Another ship of similar purpose, as time has shown, seen PLA, etc. 717..

Postwar underwater mine layers and pr.632 pr.648

Gusev Submarines special purpose. SPb .: "Galea Print", 2002, pp 77-82
Shirokorad AB Soviet submarines of postwar construction M .: Arsenal-Press, 1997, pp 118-121.
Zharkov Tyurin B. Underwater mine layer. // Sea collection. 1995. №6. S. 65-69.
Shmakov R., V. Zharkov Transportation underwater leviathans. // Military parade. 1998. №29. S.43-47.
Ilyin, A. Kolesnikov Experienced submarines and boats for special purposes. // Arms and equipment. 2000. №5-6. S. 87-88.

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