April 14, 2016 - In the mid-fifties, Soviet designers began to develop several new cruise missiles for the Navy.At the end of the decade on weapons missile submarine U-5 was adopted, created in OKB-52.In the future, a number of new missile systems have been created on its basis.In parallel with the P-5 developed the product P-10, which was to make it a competition.During the tests missile P-5 showed higher performance, and then was put into service.Project P-10 was closed, however, it remained in the history of Russian missile technology.In 1954, it was decided to create a new-aircraft missiles (cruise missile) for advanced weapons submarines.This weapon was designed to engage area surface and coastal targets with known coordinates.In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers, defines the requirements for new weapons, launched the development of the two projects.OKB-52 under the direction of VNChelomeya took over missile P-5, and the OKB-49, led by GMBeriev, work began on the project P-10.The aim of the two projects was to create a new guided missile with a range of at least 300 kilometers, capable of delivering to the target area or a special explosive fragmentation warhead.Prospective rocket was supposed to be the main shock weapon submarines of a new type.Therefore, not only was required to develop a missile system and for its storage and launching from the submarine.
Rocket R-10 launcher, mounted on the submarine B-64. Fall 1957 Photo Youroker.livejournal.com
Development of the project P-10 was associated with appreciable difficulties. Pending receipt of the relevant order of OKB-49 was engaged only in aviation technology and have never designed a missile system. As a result, experts KB GM Beriev needed help. In order to explore new technologies Office sought the assistance of colleagues. A number of OKB-49 experts went on missions to other organizations involved in the creation of cruise missiles. Mastering the experience of others helped to solve basic engineering tasks and successfully complete the design of a new missile system. The missile P-10 was designed for arming submarines that affected its construction. The product had to have a minimum size, allowing it to transport the container carrier submarines. To fulfill such requirements, it was decided to use the appropriate layout missiles and folding wings. With these decisions the transverse dimensions of the product in the transport position could cut roughly in half relative to flight configuration. It should be noted, similar ideas were implemented in the project P-5, but it uses other mechanisms wing opening, a way to run, and so on cruise missile fuselage of the new model has received a large extension of complex shape. Provides a pointed nose fairing, transitions into a cylindrical assembly of the fuselage. In the middle part of the fuselage bottom rose, reducing the height of the front air intake design. In the tail of the rocket was located sustainer turbojet engine nozzle that is output through the rear section of the fuselage. Proposed to strengthen the mid-wing big sweep in the middle part of the fuselage. The wing consisted of a relatively narrow center section of the fixed and folding consoles. In the transport position the console had to be folded by turning up, then transverse dimension limited only to tail and starting motors. The rear fuselage was proposed to strengthen the swept fin and horizontal tail with conspicuous cross V. On the wing, stabilizer and fin envisaged rudders and ailerons to control during flight. Below the stabilizer on the sides of the engine compartment, the two mounts positioned starter motors, made in the form of cylindrical blocks with at tail ends of the nozzles. The power plant P-10 rocket was to consist of two main components. For the initial acceleration, the set speed and altitude proposed to use two solid starting engine PRD-26. After running out of fuel, these products have been dumped. For the main part of the flight trajectory of the new turbojet sustainer engine was developed. The OKB-300 in collaboration with OKB-49 korotkoresursnaya modification of RD-9B engine has been created under the designation MRC-9. This product could develop traction up to 2500 kg, and decrease design resource to the minimum allowable values allows us to simplify and reduce the cost of production. Due to the lack of alternatives and because of the characteristics of the original terms of reference missile P-5 and P-10 were equipped with inertial guidance systems, able to provide missile flight to the specified point, but without the possibility of the search target and aiming directly at her. Thus, the missile P-10 received autopilot with an altimeter and a set of other equipment. Before starting the crew of the submarine carrier was introduced into the memory of the autopilot flight mission, after which he could withdraw their own rocket to a given point with reasonable accuracy. The new missile was the possibility of a high explosive and special combat units. Depending on the tactical situation and received a combat mission, the submarine could destroy the target with a few quintals of explosives or using RDS-4 with capacity of 30 kt. Such fighting equipment capable of applying considerable damage not only to single targets, but enemy ship groups. Ready-missile OKB-49 design was 11.125 m length and wingspan of 3740 mm (Unfolded). The total height of the product is equal to 1.7 m. Due to the foldable wing diameter of the rocket could be reduced approximately by half, but other means of reducing the dimensions in the transport position not envisaged. Thus, the missile R-10 required the use of a relatively large shipping container.
Projections missiles P-10. Figure Shirokorad AB "Weapons domestic fleet. 1945-2000"
Runs promising missiles offered by means of a relatively complicated launcher comprising a transport container, rails, and other devices.The main unit responsible for the storage of all other means, was a cylindrical container right size. The container was proposed to establish motionless on rugged submarines carrier. The rear end of the container closed by the movable cover. Behind the container in the outer hull must have installed special rails to move the launcher. On the rails, equipped with racks, a special trolley with fixings and guides for the rocket had to move. To move the truck had an electric motor with a remote control from the panel in the post missile system management. In preparation for the campaign of the submarine on the trolley should be secured missile P-10. The rails consist of two parts, the so-called intermediate and the starting frame. It should be recalled that the draft P-5 DB-52 experts managed to solve a number of important tasks and provide a relatively quick and easy launch missiles. Surfacing, the carrier rocket was supposed to lift the container on a small corner and starting to open its lid. After the command to launch the rocket engines and included a powder coming out of the container, moving in short "zero" guide. Immediately after the release of the automatic container should disclose and fix the wing. Create the required systems such as automatic opening wing, took a long time, but similar principles, working well in practice, is still actively used in missile systems. The launch of P-10 was supposed to look different. Upon surfacing, the submarine was supposed to open only the lid of the shipping container and remove it from the truck with a rocket (the tail ahead). Moving aft, trolley on rails exported missile outside the container. At this time, a separate team from the console performs automatic opening wing. The rearmost position of the truck had to stop off at the starting frame rails, equipped with its own hydraulic system. The objective of the last frame was lifting, trucks and rocket to the launch angle of 20,5 °. After lifting frame was fixed braces. According to reports, the missile complex control equipment installed on the carrier, had an interesting feature. All operations in preparation for the launch of missiles were carried out in an automatic mode by pressing just one button. Upon completion of all operations, the complex was completely ready for pressing another button - she was responsible for the rocket launch and attack targets. As a command from the rocket was to include marching turbojet engine and bring it to the maximum speed. Start by simultaneously launching two propellant engines. With their help, the rocket went with short guide, took over the felling of the submarine, and began his flight. After development of the charge boosters proposed dumping, and a further mission was carried out by means of its own rocket engine. The characteristics of the power plant, fuel, autopilot, and aerodynamics allowed to fly at a distance up to 600 km. The flight could be carried out at heights of 200 to 400 m. Due to the lack of accuracy of inertial guidance and a lack of instruments to search for targets at a maximum range of the missile could hit the only area targets a relatively large size. In the first half of 1956 were made several missiles layouts P-10 which are intended to be used in flight tests of the first stage. From full combat missile similar products different set of equipment and design. In addition to the weight of the warhead simulator models received a simplified design of the airframe. Thus, wood were used instead of the series of metal parts. In addition, models have simplified the composition of airborne equipment, as intended for throwing the testing and validation work starting systems.
Missile launchers P-10 on the submarine project P611. Figure Shirokorad AB "Fiery Sword of the Russian Navy"
The first trial began July 21, 1956 on one of the Crimean landfills. 21, 25 and 27 July with the launch of three throwing ground installations have been carried out, during which the work was checked starting engines and reset mechanisms. Layouts missiles themselves, respectively, falling at a certain distance from the launcher. Products XMT-26 and related equipment performed well, which made it possible to continue to work on the project. The tests were carried out on the second stage of Kapustin Yar using the rocker stand, built on the CM-49 for the container-based missile P-5. Initial product complemented the set of rails, hydraulic lifting, transport trolley, etc. From March 11 to May 17, 1957, such a system has performed five missile launches. In the first three launches stand it stood still, and in the last two simulated pitching submarines carrier. During these launches was able to bring the flight range of up to 120 km. At the same flight speed it was considerably less than the calculated. The project envisages the flight with a maximum speed of 360 m / s, whereas the experimental product developed only 320-350 m / s. Require some refinement of the power plant and control systems. One of the five experimental missiles, checks at Kapustin Yar, was lost in the accident. After leaving the start-up guide is one of the boosters are not separated, which is why the product has lost stability and fell a couple of kilometers from the launcher. Four other missiles generally performed tasks and showed trouble-free operation of equipment, although it could not confirm the calculated flight characteristics. The following tests new missile system have been carried out using a specially converted submarine. Preparation for this began in mid-1955. In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers, CDB-18 began development of the submarine project P611. The aim of this project was the conversion of the submarine project 611 with installation of launch systems and other devices for the application of R-10 missiles. Suggested minimum design changes, allowing you to build on the basis of the existing boat towing the submarine drill. In August 1955, was the start of development of the project 642. This submarine, based on the design of the existing equipment, was supposed to carry two missiles R-10. Work on the project lasted almost a year. In August 56th, it was decided to refuse such a submarine. The project was closed. Also in April 1956 created a project 646, an option which meant arming submarines two missiles R-10. The second version of the project was to use four containers with products P-5. At the end of the spring of 1956 a new project was approved by the leadership of P611. He meant the conversion of existing submarine project 611 with the dismantling of the feed equipment for loading torpedoes and artillery weapons, as well as the reduction of fuel and fresh water. After removing all the "extra" units at the stern of the submarine fastened container and other devices for use missiles P-10. After approval of the project was selected P611 potential new carrier rocket, which has become a diesel-electric submarine B-64. She was sent to the plant №402 (Severodvinsk), where all the necessary work for the conversion in accordance with the updated design were produced. In mid-1957 B-64 the boat was ready to participate in missile tests. After remaking the submarine was different from other boats of its project by the presence of a large container behind the cabin and the rails for the trolley. In addition, at the central office, new missile complex control panels. September 23, 1957 the submarine B-64, while on the ground in the White Sea, the first time launched a missile P-10. During start-up carrier moving at a speed of 7 knots, the excitement does not exceed 1-2 points. Start was successful, but after 70 seconds the problems began with the work of some missile systems into the flight. After fifteen minutes after liftoff finally refused hydraulics, resulting in lost missile autopilot control. After 15 seconds after missile P-10 fell into the sea, flying a total of 30 km.
One of the test launches autumn 1957. Photo Militaryrussia.ru
September 28 was the second launch. At this time, the rocket could fly nearly 200 km, but do not hit the conditional target. On the way missiles flying at an altitude of less than 200 m, the hill was. The missile hit a snag and collapsed. The third launch on October 17 passed without collisions with unforeseen obstacles, but not over the defeat of the conditional goal. Due to problems flight motor speed does not exceed 320 m / s, resulting in premature development of fuel. The missile fell about 240 km from the starting point. October 31 observed bad weather: wind up to 17 m / s and excitement to 6 points. Despite this, the fourth experimental rocket launched the boat B-64, flew to conventional goals and got into it. Successful completion of the first phase of testing on the submarine allowed to continue to test and start preparing for the state tests, the results of which missile system could count on the adoption. With tests missile P-10 to B-64 submarine related an interesting story, described a project participant AG . Bogatyrev. During one of the test launches aboard the submarine was attended not only by representatives of the crew and the design office, but the commander of the Northern Fleet, Admiral AT Chabanenko. After a twenty-minute ad ready to start the admiral ordered the commander of the boat to go to the central station and report that the entire crew inside the pressure hull. The commander, thinking that the admiral, too, returned to the submarine, gave the order to close the hatch. After starting the crew discovered that all this time the commander of the Northern Fleet was on the deck of the submarine. However, accidentally forgotten outside of the boat AT Chabanenko was pleased with the launch. In addition, he is taking advantage of the moment, I had a little experiment: put a cap on the deck, wondering whether it will blow starting engines. Also, the admiral took precautions, hiding behind the wheelhouse. Despite the discontent test, the admiral was completely satisfied with start-up. P-10 missile was noticeable perspective, but has not reached full operating fleet. P-10 project in terms of timing of work ahead of P-5, but it lagged behind a number of other features, especially the characteristics. Thus, P-5 rocket designer VN Chelomeya under similar flight data was a bit smaller, lighter, and launched directly from the transport container. The latter feature greatly rocket allow to reduce the time during which the submarine was to remain on the surface. As a result, the P-5 for the Navy represented much more interest than the P-10. The results of the tests, it was decided about the fate of the two projects. December 31, 1957 the Council of Ministers decided to stop work on a missile P-10, and continue the development of the project P-5. Shortly thereafter, the submarine B-64 went back to rebuild on the original project 611, and the further development of media U-10 was abolished. A few years after the closure of the project P-10 missile R-5 was put into service, and later became the main striking weapon several dozen submarines of projects. In addition, new missiles and missile systems have been developed based on it. P-10 project at a particular stage was the basis for future supersonic seaplane P-10B, however, in connection with the rejection of the further development of the project work on it was stopped. Later developments on P-10 promising projects were not in demand. In AB Weapons domestic fleet. 1945-2000. - Mn .: "Harvest", 2001. Shirokorad AB Fiery Sword of the Russian Navy. - M .: Eksmo, 2004.